International Journal of Information & Communication Technology Research <p class="show">International Journal of Information &amp; Communication Technology Research (IJICTR) publishes high quality scientific papers covering all aspects of information and communication technology also is indexed in MSRT(Iran Ministry of Science, Research and Technology) and ISC (Islamic World Science Citation Center) and many other Scientific Citation Centers.</p> IRAN Telecommunication Research Center (ITRC) en-US International Journal of Information & Communication Technology Research 2251-6107 <p><strong>Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)</strong></p> Design and Implementation of a TEM Cell with Piecewise Linear Tapering <p>The transverse electromagnetic (TEM) cells are used for electromagnetic interference/compatibility (EMI/EMC) experiments of the small RF devices in a laboratory environment. The standard electromagnetic fields generated in the shielded environment of a TEM cell can also be used for calibration of the RF field probes.&nbsp; In this paper, a 50 W open TEM cell is designed and fabricated to generate standard electromagnetic fields from 1 MHz up to 1 GHz. To overcome the impedance mismatch and improve the voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) along the TEM cell, a new piecewise linear tapering method is proposed for the inner conductor of the cell. The resulted matching conditions of the new tapering method are presented through some numerical simulations and measurements and compared to those of the conventional simple linear tapering.</p> Masoud Arezoomand Mohsen Kalantari Meybodi Narges Noori ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-17 2018-02-17 9 3 1 6 An Attack Graph Based Method for Predictive Risk Evaluation of Zero-Day Attacks <p class="Abstract">Performing risk assessment of computer networks is inevitable in the process of network hardening. To do efficient attack prevention, risk evaluation must be done in an accurate and quantitative manner. Such risk assessment requires thorough understanding of attack’s causes or vulnerabilities and their related characteristics. But one major problem is that, there are vulnerabilities that are known by attackers but there is no information about them in databases like NVD (National Vulnerability Database). Such vulnerabilities are referred to as unknown or zero day attacks. Existing standards like NVD ignore the effect of unknown attacks in risk assessment of computer networks. In this paper, by defining some attack graph based security metrics, we proposed an innovative method for risk evaluation of multi-step Zero-Day Attacks. Proposed method by predicting the intrinsic features of Zero-Day attacks makes their risk estimation possible. Considering the effect of Temporal features of vulnerabilities have made our approach a Dynamic Risk Estimator</p> Marjan Keramati ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-17 2018-02-17 9 3 7 16 Multi-Objective Response to Co-Resident Attacks in Cloud Environment <p>Cloud computing is a dynamic environment that offers variety of on-demand services with low cost. However, customers face new security risks due to shared infrastructure in the cloud. Co-residency of virtual machines on the same physical machine, leads to several threats for cloud tenants. Cloud administrators are often encountered with a more challenging problem since they have to work within a fixed budget for cloud hardening. The problem is how to select a subset of countermeasures to be within the budget and yet minimize the residual damage to the cloud caused by malicious VMs. We address this problem by introducing a novel multi-objective attack response system. We consider response cost, co-residency threat, and virtual machines interactions to select optimal response in face of the attack. Optimal response selection as a multi-objective optimization problem calculates alternative responses, with minimum threat and cost. Our method estimates threat level based on the collaboration graph and suggests proper countermeasures based on threat type with minimum cost. Experimental result shows that our system can suggest optimal responses based on the current state of the cloud.</p> Farzaneh Abazari Morteza Analoui Hassan Takabi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-17 2018-02-17 9 3 25 36 Domain Ontology to Distinguish Different Types of Rootkits <p>Rootkit is an auxiliary tool for sniffing, stealing and hiding, so it has become the key component in almost all successful attacks. Analysis of rootkits will provide system administrators and security software managers the ability to detect and prevent a computer being compromised. Ontology will provide detailed conceptualization to represent the rootkit concepts and its relationships to other security concepts in cyber-attack domain. In this paper we presented an ontology for rootkits which contains many concepts relating to security, cyber-attacks and operating systems. We divided rootkits according to four attributes, and expanded the ontology for rootkits accordingly. This ontology can be used to distinguish different types of rootkits.</p> ahmad salahi Javad Enayatizadeh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-17 2018-02-17 9 3 17 24 Enhancement of educational games based on personality type indicators <p>Previous studies indicate that the use of adaptive learning and game techniques enhances learning process; nevertheless, the adaptation based on learner’s personality has not been well researched in serious-game’s literature. There are plenty of game-elements which can be used in an educational game, but the effect of them may vary due to differences in personality types of learners. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of various game-elements on learning outcomes. With the aim of improving learning process we have focused on designing a game-based learning where the game-elements have been personalized based on learner’s personality types. The developed game contains a non-adaptive mode and also an in-game adaptive mode that assigns game-elements due to learner’s personality type. The results represented significant difference between engagement levels of two modes; in addition, learning outcomes were better for the adaptive mode. Besides, in this paper the sensitivity analysis of various personality dimensions relative to the game-elements has been determined and presented in a corresponding table. The results of this paper indicates that a well-designed game environment can improve the learning process. This paper presents the prominent and influential elements for each of personality types. Results of this paper can be used to improve effect of using game-elements in designing learning environments.</p> Negar Shabihi Fattaneh Taghiyareh Mohammad Hossein Abdoli ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-17 2018-02-17 9 3 37 45 A novel approach for learning improvement in interactive classroom environments using learning automata <p><strong>Determining the best way of learning and acquiring knowledge, especially in intelligent tutoring systems has drawn researchers' attention during past years. Studies conducted on E-learning systems and strategies proposed to improve the quality of these systems, indicate that the main learning resources for students in an educational environment are provided by two crucial factors. The first is the teacher who can basically influence students’ success through demonstrating her ability and skills, and the second is interaction among students. In this article, a new modeling approach is presented for improving learning/teaching models as well as interaction among learners, from which the most benefit can be derived by learners. The proposed model uses the learning automata for modeling the teacher and her behavior in such a way that she can also learn and teach better at the same time, thus improves her teaching skills. The model also uses cellular learning automata in order to model behavior of the learners as well as interactions between the learners for knowledge acquisition. The results indicate that in addition to teacher’s skills, the interaction/communication among learners can significantly improve the quality and speed of learning as compared with previous methods.</strong></p> Hajar Hajary Ali Ahmadi Maryam Khani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-17 2018-02-17 9 3 47 58 A Stochastic Approach for Valuing Customers <p>The present study attempts to develop a new model for computing customer lifetime value. The customer lifetime value defined in this paper is the combination of present value and future value. As an innovation the CLV modeling of this paper is based on customer behavior modeling, done by data mining techniques. By extracting the profit vector related to each type of customer behavior, calculation of present study was done, then by utilizing Markov chain model we predict future value and count customer lifetime value. A new churn model was contributed by authors to manage unprofitable CRM costs; utilizing this churn model, the proposed CLV model can cause more profitability for the enterprise. The new CLV model of this paper was validated by historical customer data of a composite manufacturing company.</p> Mohammadjafar Tarokh Mahsa EsmaeiliGookeh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-17 2018-02-17 9 3 59 66